Multiomics Scientist: What is it?
What is Multiomics?
With the advent of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, there has been an exponential increase in DNA sequencing data. This data may come from a variety of biological sources. These sources can be genomic DNA, RNA, or parts of genomic DNA that interact with certain proteins. Depending on the scientific study underway any or more of these biological sources can be used to generate DNA/RNA sequence data. These data can give significant information about the state of biological material under study. Genomic DNA contains the entire genetic blueprint of the organism. The generation and analysis of the genomic DNA sequencing data constitute genomics. Genomics focuses on the study of genomic DNA sequences in a functional and evolutionary context.
The genetic information in genomic DNA is expressed through the process of transcription and translation. Transcription is the process by which the gene sequences are transcribed in the form of the RNA sequence. The translation process involves using information from mRNA to assemble amino acids as a protein product. Transcriptomics is the study of all RNA sequences expressed in the cell/tissue. Transcriptomic studies provide information about the part of the genome that is expressed at a particular time/condition in the cell or tissue type.
The information in the genome is expressed under the influence of mechanisms that control which part of the genome is to be expressed. These mechanisms constitute epigenomic mechanisms that involve DNA interactions with different proteins, packaging of the DNA, methylation states of DNA elements, etc. These different states can be studied using different experimental techniques. These techniques generate high throughput DNA sequence data. The study of these data to make meaningful inferences is part of epigenomics.
Along with genomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics, there are other avenues of biological data such as proteomics, and metabolomics. All these omics technologies provide valuable information about the state of the biological system. Not only individually but also by integration of these different omics technologies can reveal significant biological information. Multiomic analysis requires knowledge of each omics technology and the usefulness of integration of data from different omics technologies.
Multiomics scientists have expertise in integrating multiple omics data sources to make meaningful biological discoveries about genotypes and their effect on the phenotype of the biological system under study.